In the world of real estate, success stories often start with a vision and a plan. For Hui Ka Yan, that vision was simple: borrow to buy land, sell homes before they are even built, and use the proceeds to finance the next ambitious real estate project. This formula propelled him from a humble background as a steel industry worker in a rural village to the pinnacle of China’s wealth hierarchy, making him the country’s richest man. His company, China Evergrande Group, became a sprawling real estate empire, symbolizing the rapid growth of China’s property market.
However, as Evergrande’s footprint expanded, so did its debt burden. To sustain its growth, the company resorted to increasingly unconventional methods to generate funds. By 2016, one of its subsidiaries was persuading employees to invest in financial products from the group’s wealth-management unit, allocating up to half of their salaries towards these products. Such practices were only a glimpse into the financial complexities that were building beneath the surface.
Evergrande’s story also unveils the inner workings of a Chinese real estate giant, from the euphoric era of soaring property prices to the precipitous downfall when outraged retail investors stormed its offices. The fate of Evergrande mirrors the trajectory of China’s broader property market, a pivotal force in the world’s second-largest economy that is now becoming a drag on its growth.
A Harrowing Decline
Since mid-2021, approximately 40% of Chinese home sales have been affected by defaults, according to analysts’ estimates. Countless properties remain unfinished, suppliers have gone unpaid, and millions of Chinese investors who placed their savings in property-linked wealth management products face the grim prospect of losing their investments.
Public trust in the property market is eroding rapidly. Recent events, such as the default on two U.S. dollar bonds and a delayed repayment request for a private onshore bond by another major developer, Country Garden, have further shaken confidence.
Evergrande’s challenges persist. The beleaguered developer has proposed terms for restructuring its offshore debt and has sought the approval of a U.S. court for the plan. Evergrande asserts that this restructuring will alleviate its offshore debt burden and enable the company to resume operations.
Nonetheless, the company recently reported losses of 33 billion yuan ($4.53 billion) for the first half of the year, a stark contrast to the 66.4 billion yuan loss in the same period the previous year. When Evergrande’s shares resumed trading after a 17-month suspension, they plummeted by 79%, wiping out $2.2 billion of the company’s market value.
For Hui Ka Yan, this decline represents a personal financial catastrophe, erasing tens of billions of dollars from his net worth and necessitating the frantic sale of corporate assets to meet debt obligations. Evergrande is also facing a barrage of legal challenges, with over 2,200 lawsuits amounting to roughly 535 billion yuan ($73.40 billion) in potential liability as of June.
A Systemic Threat
The deteriorating debt crisis in China’s property sector poses a formidable challenge for President Xi Jinping and his policymakers. The country’s economy is already grappling with weakened domestic and international demand, resulting in sluggish growth during the second quarter.
Widespread concern exists about the possibility of this crisis spilling over into China’s financial sector and the broader economy, and these concerns are reverberating through global markets.
China’s State Council Information Office, responsible for handling media inquiries on behalf of the government, has declined to comment on the property market and Evergrande’s fate. Both the housing authority and the finance ministry have not responded to requests for comments.
In addition to its real estate troubles, China’s export sector has been hit hard. Last month, China experienced the steepest decline in exports in three years, a decline attributed to a sluggish global economy that is pressuring Chinese policymakers to consider fresh stimulus measures.
The momentum of China’s post-COVID recovery, which started strongly in the first quarter, has now slowed. Analysts are downgrading their economic growth projections for the remainder of the year.
In June, outbound shipments from the world’s second-largest economy plummeted by a worse-than-expected 12.4% year-on-year, following a 7.5% drop in May, according to data from China’s Customs Bureau. These developments underscore the broader economic challenges China faces beyond its property market woes.
The rise and fall of Evergrande and the distress in China’s real estate and export sectors are emblematic of the broader challenges facing the country’s economy. President Xi Jinping and his policymakers must navigate these treacherous waters as they seek to prevent further economic turmoil. The fate of Evergrande serves as a stark reminder of the perils of excessive debt and risky financial practices.
As China grapples with these challenges, the world watches closely, aware of the potential global implications of a Chinese economic crisis.
- What led to Evergrande’s financial crisis? Evergrande’s financial crisis stemmed from its rapid expansion and heavy borrowing, which eventually led to an unsustainable debt burden. Unconventional financing practices, such as encouraging employees to invest in financial products, added to the complexity of the situation.
- How is the Chinese government responding to the property market crisis? The Chinese government has not provided a comprehensive response to the property market crisis. As of now, there have been no official comments or statements from government authorities regarding Evergrande’s fate.
- What impact does Evergrande’s crisis have on the global economy? Evergrande’s crisis has raised concerns about contagion spreading to China’s financial sector and the broader global economy. It has contributed to market volatility and uncertainty.
- What are the implications of China’s declining exports? China’s declining exports are indicative of a weaker global economy and may prompt Chinese policymakers to consider additional stimulus measures to stimulate economic growth.
- What steps can be taken to address China’s economic challenges? Addressing China’s economic challenges requires a multifaceted approach, including debt restructuring, regulatory reforms in the property sector, and policies to boost domestic and international demand. The government’s response will play a crucial role in stabilizing the situation.